Δευτέρα, 6 Ιουνίου 2011

THE PASCHAL CANON


Song 1

Eirmos: It is the Day of Resurrection! Let us be radiant, O people! Pascha! The Lord's Pascha! For Christ our God has brought us from death to life, and from earth unto heaven, as we sing triumphant hymns!

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead. (before each troparion).

Let us purify our senses and we shall behold Christ, radiant with inaccessible light of the Resurrection, and shall hear Him saying clearly, "Rejoice!" As we sing the triumphant hymns!

Let heavens rejoice in a worthy manner, the earth be glad, and the whole world, visible and the invisible, keep the Feast. For Christ our eternal joy has risen!

Katabasia: It is the Day of Resurrection!…

Song 3

Eirmos: Come, let us drink a new beverage, not miraculously drawn from a barren rock, but the fountain of Incorruption springing from the tomb of Christ in Whom we are established.

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead.

Now all things are filled with light: heaven and earth, and the nethermost regions. So let all creation celebrate the Resurrection of Christ, whereby it is established.

Yesterday, O Christ, I was buried with Thee, and today I arise with thy arising. Yesterday I was crucified with Thee. Glorify me, O Savior, with Thee in Thy Kingdom.

Katabasia: Come, let us drink…

Hypakoe: When at dawn, the women with Mary came and found the stone rolled away from the sepulcher, they heard from the angel: Why seek among the dead (as if He were a mortal man) Him Who lives in everlasting light? Behold the grave-clothes. Run and tell the world that the Lord is risen, and has slain death. For He is the Son of God Who saves mankind.

Song 4

Eirmos: May the divinely speaking Abbacum now stand watch with us, and show forth a shining Angel saying resoundingly: Today salvation has come to the world; for Christ is risen as Almighty.

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead.

Christ revealed Himself as of the male sex when He opened the Virgin's womb, and as a mortal He is called the Lamb. Thus without blemish also, is our Pascha, for He tasted no corruption, and, since He is truly God, He was proclaimed perfect.

Christ, our blessed Crown, like a yearling Lamb, of His own good will sacrificed Himself for all, a Pascha of purification, and as the glorious Sun of Righteousness, He has shone upon us again from the grave.

David, the forefather of our divine Lord, leapt and danced before the symbolical Ark of the Covenant. Let us also, the holy people of God, beholding the fulfillment of the symbols, be divinely glad; for Christ has risen as Almighty.

Katabasia: May divinely speaking Abbacum …

Song 5

Eirmos: Let us arise in the deep dawn and, instead of myrrh, offer a hymn to the Lord, and we shall behold Christ, the Sun of Righteousness, Who causes life to dawn for all.

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead.

When they who were held by the chains of hell beheld Thy boundless compassion, O Christ, they hastened to the light with joyful feet, exalting the eternal Pascha.

Bearing lights, let us meet Christ, Who comes forth from the tomb like a bridegroom. And with the ranks of joyfully celebrating Angels, let us celebrate the redeeming Pascha of God.

Katabasia: Let us arise…

Song 6

Eirmos: Thou did descend into the nether regions of earth, O Christ, and did shatter the eternal bars which held the prisoners captive; and like Jonah from the sea-monster, after three days Thou did rise from the grave.

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead.

Having kept the seals intact, Thou did rise from the grave, O Christ, Who did not violate the Virgin's womb by Thy birth, and Thou hast opened to us the gates of Paradise.

O my Savior, while as God Thou did voluntarily offer Thyself to the Father as an unslain and living sacrifice, Thou did raise up with Thyself the whole race of Adam, when Thou did rise from the grave.

Katabasia: Thou did descend…

Kontakion: Though Thou did descend into the grave, O Immortal One, yet did Thou destroy the power of hell, and did rise again as a conqueror, O Christ our Lord, saying to the myrrh-bearing women, rejoice! And giving peace to Thine Apostles, and offering Resurrection to the fallen.

Eikos: The myrrh-bearing maidens anticipated the dawn and sought, as those who seek the day, their Sun, Who was before the sun and Who had once sat in the grave. And they cried to each other: Friends, come, let us anoint with spices His life-giving and buried body — the Flesh Who raised up fallen Adam, and Who now lies in the tomb. Let us go, let us hasten, and like the Magi, let us worship; and let us bring myrrh as a gift to Him, Who is wrapped, not now in swaddling clothes, but in a shroud. And let us weep and cry: Arise, O Lord, Who offers Resurrection to the fallen.

Having beheld the Resurrection of Christ, let us adore the Holy Lord Jesus, the only sinless One. We worship Thy Cross, O Christ, and Thy Holy Resurrection we praise and glorify; for Thou art our God, and we know no other than Thee; we call upon Thy name. O come all you faithful, let us worship Christ's holy Resurrection. For behold, through the Cross joy has come to all the world. Ever blessing the Lord, let us praise His Resurrection. By enduring the Cross for us He destroyed death by death. (Thrice)

Jesus, having risen from the grave as He foretold, has given us eternal life and great mercy. (Thrice)

Song 7

Eirmos: He Who delivered the children from the furnace, and became man and suffered as a mortal, through His suffering, He clothes mortality with the grace of incorruption, He is the only blessed and most glorious God of our fathers.

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead.

The godly wise women came to Thee with myrrh. But Him Whom they sought with tears as dead, they joyfully adored as the living God. And they told to Thy disciples, O Christ, the glad tidings of the mystical Pascha.

We celebrate the death of death, the destruction of hell, the beginning of eternal life. And leaping for joy, we celebrate the Cause, the only blessed and most glorious God of our fathers.

For a truly holy and a supreme feast is this saving night radiant with Light, the harbinger of the bright day of Resurrection, on which the Eternal Light shone bodily from the grave upon all.

Katabasia: He Who delivered…

Song 8

Eirmos: This is the chosen and Holy Day, the first of Sabbaths, the Sovereign and Queen, the Feast of Feasts, and Triumph of Triumphs, on which let us bless Christ forever.

Refrain: Christ is risen from the dead.

O come, let us partake of the fruit of the new vine of divine joy on the auspicious Day of the Resurrection and Kingdom of Christ, praising Him as God forever.

Cast thine eyes about thee, O Zion, and behold! For lo! Thy children have assembled unto thee from the West and from the North and from the South and from the East, as divinely radiant luminaries, Blessing Christ unto the ages.

Refrain: O Most Holy Trinity, our God, glory to Thee.

Father, Almighty, the Word, and the Spirit, one Nature in three Persons united, transcending essence supremely Divine! In Thee we have been baptized, and Thee will bless us throughout all ages.

Katabasia: This is the chosen…

Song 9

Refrain 1: Magnify, O my soul, Him Whom suffered willingly and was buried and rose from the grave on the third day.

Eirmos: Shine, shine, O New Jerusalem, for the glory of the Lord has risen upon thee. Now dance for joy and be glad, O Zion! And thou, pure Mother of God, rejoice in the rising of Him Whom thou didst bear.

Refrain 2: Magnify, O my soul, Christ the life-giver, Who rose from the grave on the third day.

Again: Shine, shine…

Refrain 3: Christ is the New Pascha, the living sacrificial Victim, the Lamb of God Who takes away the sin of the world.

Troparion: O divine, O dear, O sweetest Voice! For Thou, O Christ, hast faithfully promised to be with us to the end of the world. And holding fast this promise as an anchor of hope, we the faithful rejoice.

Refrain 4: The Angel cried to her who is full of grace: Rejoice, pure Virgin! And again I say, Rejoice! Thy Son has risen on the third day from the grave, and has raised the dead. Rejoice, you people!

Again: O divine, O dear…

Refrain 5: Roaring royally, as the Lion of Judas, Thou hast slept, and Thou hast awakened the dead of all past ages.

Again: O divine, O dear…

Refrain 6: Mary Magdalene ran to the sepulchre, and she saw Christ, and spoke to Him as to the gardener.

Troparion: O great and holiest Pascha, Christ! O Wisdom, Word and Power of God! Grant that we may more perfectly partake of Thee in the unending Day of Thy Kingdom.

Refrain 7: The radiant Angel cried to the women: Stop your tears, for Christ has risen.

Refrain 8: You people, rejoice, for Christ has risen, trampling down death and raising the dead.

Refrain 9: Today all creation is glad and rejoices, for Christ has risen and hell has been conquered.

Refrain 10: Today the Master conquered hell and raised the prisoners from all the ages which it had held in bitter bondage.

Refrain 11: Magnify, O my soul, the might of the Tri-Personed and Undivided Godhead.

Refrain 12: Rejoice, O Virgin, rejoice! Rejoice, O blessed one! Rejoice, O glorious one! For thy Son has risen from the grave on the third day.

Katabasia: Shine, shine…

The Paschal Canon, by St John of Damascus. Translated, with extensive notes, by Archimandrite Ephrem.

ODE 1 Tone I. [1] Irmos

The day of Resurrection, [2] let us be radiant, Ο peoples! Pascha, the Lord's Pascha; [3] for Christ God has brought us over [4] from death to life, and from earth to heaven, as we sing the triumphal song [5].

Let us purify our senses, [6] and in the unapproachable light [7] of the resurrection we shall see Christ shining forth, and we shall clearly hear him saying 'Rejoice!', [8] as we sing the triumphal song.

Let the heavens, as is fitting, rejoice and let the earth be glad. [9] Let the whole world, both seen and unseen, [10] keep the feast: for Christ has risen, [11] our eternal joy.

ODE 3 Irmos

Come let us drink a new drink, [12] not one marvellously brought forth from a barren rock, [13] but a Source of incorruption, which pours out from the tomb of Christ, in whom we are established.

Now all things have been filled with light, both heaven and earth and those beneath the earth; [14] so let all creation sing Christ's rising, in whom [15] it is established. [16]

Yesterday I was buried with you Ο Christ, today I rise with you as you arise. Yesterday I was crucified with you; [17] glorify me with you, Saviour, in your Kingdom.

ODE 4 Irmos

Let the Prophet Avvakoum, inspired by God, keep the divine watch with us, and show forth the radiant Angel, who with resounding voice declares, 'Today is salvation for the world, for Christ has risen as omnipotent'. [18]

Christ appeared as a 'male' who opened the virgin womb. As our food he is called 'lamb'; 'unblemished', as our Passover without stain; and 'perfect', for he is true God. [19]

As a yearling lamb, for us a crown of goodness, the Blessed One, the cleansing Passover [20] has been willingly sacrificed for all; and from the tomb the fair Sun of justice [21] has shone for us again. [22]

God's forebear David, dancing, leaped before the Ark, [23] mere shadow, but seeing the fulfilment of the types, let us, God's holy people, inspired, rejoice, for Christ has risen as omnipotent.

ODE 5 Irmos

Let us arise in the early dawn, [24] and instead of myrrh, offer praises to the Master; and we shall see Christ, the Sun of Justice, [25] who causes life to dawn for all.

Those who were held by Hades' bonds, seeing your measureless compassion, press forward to the light, Ο Christ, with joyful steps, praising an eternal Passover. [26]

With torches in our hands [27] let us go out to meet Christ as he comes from the grave like a bridegroom, [28] and with the festive ranks of Angels, let us together feast God's saving Passover.

ODE 6 Irmos

You went down to the deepest parts of the earth, [29] and you shattered the everlasting bars [30] of those that those that were fettered, Ο Christ. And on the third day, like Jonas from the whale, you arose from the tomb.

Keeping the seals intact, [31]O Christ, you rose from the tomb, you who did not harm the locks [32] of the Virgin's womb at your birth, and you have opened to us the gates of Paradise.

Ο my Saviour, the living Victim unsuitable for sacrifice, [33] as God offering yourself willingly to the Father, you raised with yourself all Adam's race, in rising from the tomb.

ODE 7, Irmos

He who delivered the Young Men from the furnace, [34] becoming man suffers as a mortal, and through suffering he clothes the mortal with the glory of incorruption: the only blessed and most glorious God of our Fathers. [35]

The holy women hastened after you [36] with sweet spices. The One whom they sought with tears as a mortal, they worshipped with joy as the living [37] God, and they proclaimed the mystic Passover, Ο Christ, to your disciples. [38]

We feast death's slaughter, the overthrow of Hell, [39] the first fruits of a new eternal life: [40] and dancing we hymn the cause: the only blessed and most glorious God of our Fathers.

How truly holy and all-festive is this saving night, how full of light, herald of the bright day of the resurrection, in which the timeless Light shone bodily for all from the tomb. [41]

ODE 8 Irmos

This chosen and holy day is the first of Sabbaths, [42] the Queen and Lady, the Feast of Feasts and the Festival of Festivals [43] on which we bless Christ to all the ages. [44]

Come let us share in the new fruit of the vine, [45] in divine joy, and in the kingdom of Christ, on the glorious day of the Resurrection, as we sing his praise as God to all the ages.

Lift your eyes around you, Sion, and see. For behold, like beacons [46] shedding light divine your children have come to you, from West and North, from the Sea and from the East, blessing Christ in you to all the ages. [47]

Almighty Father, Word and Spirit, nature united in three Persons, beyond all being and beyond all Godhead, into you we have been baptised and we bless you to all the ages. [48]

ODE 9 Irmos

Enlightened, be enlightened, [49] Ο New Jerusalem, for the glory of the Lord has risen upon you. [50] Dance now and be glad, Ο Sion, and you too rejoice, pure Mother of God, [51] at the arising of him to whom you gave birth.

Ο divine! Ο beloved! Ο sweetest voice! You have truly promised that you will be with us unto the end of time, Ο Christ. [52] And we the faithful rejoice, having this as an anchor of hope. [53]

Ο great and most sacred Pascha, Christ! Ο Wisdom and Word and Power of God! [54] Grant that we may partake of you fully in the day that has no evening [55] of your Kingdom.

[1] St Nikodemos starts with a long, highly rhetorical explanation, as to why St John wrote his Canon in Tone 1. He plays on the word 'radiant', λαμπρός. In Greek the Sunday of Pascha is often referred simply as Ή Λαμπρά [ήμερα]. He writes "Just as the day of Pascha is the feast of feasts, the festival of festivals and the most radiant day of all, so the first tone, which is sung on it, is more radiant than all the others. This is why in the common opinion of the musicians it was judged worthy to take the first place among the other tones". He quotes the verses which are given in the Oktoechos at the end of each tone.

The art of music marvels at your sounds,

Gives you the first place. Ah, how well deserved!

As you are called First Tone by music's art,

First then be eulogised by us in words.

Ο First, the first of beauties you obtain;

First prize you hold of all in every place.

[2] These words, the first of which in Greek is 'Resurrection' are from the opening of St Gregory's short Easter sermon (Sermon 1, PG 35:396-401), which is also the source of Doxastikon of the paschal stichera. Αναστάσεως ήμερα, και ή αρχή δεξιά, και λαμπρυνθώμεν τη πανηγόρει, και αλλήλους περιπτυξώμεθα· εΐπωμεν, αδελφοί, και τοις μισοΰσιν ημάς, μη δτι τοις δι' άγάπην τι πεποιηκόσιν, ή πεπονθόσι· συγχωρήσωμεν πάντα τη άναστάσει δώμεν συγγνώμην άλλήλοις.

[3] This is taken from St Gregory's second sermon on Pascha (Sermon 45, PG 36:624-664), although St Gregory adds a third 'Pascha', as he says, 'in honour of the Trinity' [PG 36:624].

[4] Philo gives the meaning of Pascha as 'passing over, (διάβασις or διαβατήρια) and this meaning was therefore known to the Fathers. The Vulgate, though not the LXX, glosses the word at Exodus 12:11 'id est Transitus Domini'. St Gregory gives the explanation in his second homily on Pascha, To Πάσχα τοΰτο, το μέγα τε και σεβάσμιον, Φάσκα τοις Έβραίοις προσαγορεύεται, κατά την εκείνων φωνήν δήλοι δε ή φωνή την διάβασιν. [PG 36:637]

[5] Cf. Exodus 15:1

[6] This is based on St Gregory's Sermon 45, where he says the paschal lamb was kept until the fifth day, 'perhaps because my victim [sc. Christ] purifies the senses, from which comes falling [into sin]', Διατηρείται δε είς πέμπτην ήμέραν, ίσως δτι καθαρτικόν αισθήσεων το έμόν θΰμα, εξ ων το πταίειν. [PG 36:641]

[7] 1 Timothy 6:16, [8] Matthew 28:9, [9] Psalm 95:11

[10] The allusion to the Creed is clear, but the immediate source is again St Gregory, Σήμερον σωτηρία τω κοσμώ, όσος τε ορατός, και όσος αόρατος. The whole passage is interesting , Σήμερον σωτηρία τω κοσμώ, όσος τε ορατός, και όσος αόρατος. Χριστός εκ νεκρών, συνεγείρεσθε· Χριστός εις εαυτόν, έπανέρχεσθε· Χριστός εκ τάφων, έλευθερώθητε των δεσμών της αμαρτίας. Πύλαι αδου ανοίγονται, και θάνατος καταλύεται, και ό παλαιός Αδάμ άποτίθεται, και ό νέος συμπληροΰται. [PG 36:634]

[11] 1 Corinthians 15:20, but also St Gregory in the passage quoted in note 10.

[12] Matthew 26:29, where St John Chrysostom , in his Commentary on St Matthew , sees in the word ' kingdom ' a reference to the resurrection , Είτα επειδή παρέδωκε, φησίν Ου μη πίω εκ του γεννήματος της αμπέλου ταύτης έως της ημέρας εκείνης, όταν αυτό πίνω καινόν μεθ' υμών εν τη βασιλεία του Πατρός μου. Επειδή γαρ περί πάθους αύτοΐς και σταυρού διελέχθη, και τον περί της αναστάσεως πάλιν εισάγει λόγον, βασιλείας είς μέσον άναμνήσας, και την άνάστασιν ούτω την εαυτού καλέσας. [PG 58:739] "Then, when he had delivered it, he says, Ί will not drink of the fruit of this vine, until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom' For because he had spoken with them about suffering and cross, he again introduces a saying about the resurrection, introducing a kingdom to them, and in this way referring to his own resurrection".

[13] Exodus 17:1-6, Numbers 20:2-11,1 Corinthians 10:4. The use of the word 'barren', as well as 'established' are deliberate reminders of the story of Anna, whose Song forms the 3rd Ode.

[14] Philippians 2:10; here with reference to the Descent into Hades

[15] There is a textual problem here, some texts reading a feminine, and so making 'rising' the antecedent, others a masculine, so making Christ the antecedent. St Nikodemos argues for the latter because both the commentators to whom has he access read the masculine and because the context in the biblical Ode, where it is 'The Lord' in whom Anna's 'heart is established', suggests the same.

[16] According to an Athonite tradition, this is the troparion at which St Kosmas said to St John that he was defeated and that it should be John's canon only that should be sung in the churches at Pascha. St Nikodemos says that people from Vatopedi have told him that the library of Vatopedi contains a manuscript of an Easter canon by St Kosmas in Tone 2.

[17] This troparion is once again a paraphrase of St Gregory ' s first paschal sermon , Χθες συνεσταυρούμην Χριστώ, σήμερον συνδοξάζομαν χθες συνενεκρούμην, συζωοποιοΰμαι σήμερον χθες συνεθαπτόμην, σήμερον συνεγείρομαι[ΡΟ 37:397]. St Gregory's source is Romans 8:17.

18] Avvakum 2:1. This troparion is little more than a close paraphrase of the opening of St Gregory's Sermon 45, Έπι της φυλακής μου στήσομαι, φησιν ό θαυμάσιος Άββακούμ. Κάγώ μετ' αύτοΰ σήμερον, της δεδομένης μοι παρά του Πνεύματος εξουσίας και θεωρίας, και άποσκοπεύσω και γνώσομαι, τί όφθήσεται, και τί λαληθήσεταί μοι. Και εστην, και άπεσκόπευσα· και Ιδού άνήρ έπιβεβηκώς έπι των νεφελών, και ούτος υψηλός σφόδρα· και ή δρασις αύτοΰ, ως δρασις αγγέλου· και ή στολή αύτοΰ, ως φέγγος αστραπής διερχόμενης· και επήρε την χείρα αύτοΰ κατ' ανατολάς, και έβόησε φωνή μεγάλη. Φωνή αύτοΰ, ως φωνή σάλπιγγος· και κύκλω αύτοΰ, ως πλήθος ουρανίου στρατιάς, και είπε· Σήμερον σωτηρία τω κόσμω[ΡΟ 36:624].

[19] This troparion is based on Exodus 12:5 and St Gregory's second homily on Pascha [Orat. 45] The biblical verse reads as follows:

It shall be for you a sheep perfect, male, one year old; you shall take it from the

lambs or from the kids. There is also an allusion to Exodus 13:12:

You shall set apart everything that opens the womb, the male to the Lord. In his homily St Gregory comments on these texts and says that the Lamb 'shall be eaten towards evening' [PG 36:644 ήμΐν δε ό αμνός βρωθήσεται] and the word he uses for 'shall be eaten' is the slightly uncommon βρωθήσεται, though it is the one used by the Septuagint at Exodus 12:46. St John in his canon uses the word βρωτός (food), which in a number of printed texts has been corrupted to the more common word βροτός (mortal). The point of the Passover Lamb was that it was eaten, not that it was mortal. The Slavonic here is wrong.

[20] 1 Corinthians 5:7, [21] Malachy 3:20/4:2 and cf. Psalm 18:6

[22] Here St John continues his meditation on Exodus 12:5, but he adds an allusion to Psalm 64,12, 'You will bless the crown of the year of your goodness'. The LXX has, ευλογήσεις τον στέφανον του ένιαυτοΰ της χρηστότητας σου. The 'year of God's goodness' is commonly taken by the Fathers to refer to the time of the Incarnation, with e reference to Luke 4,19. This combination St John has again taken from the same homily by St Gregory. The word for 'goodness' in the Psalm is χρηστότητος, and St John uses the corresponding adjective χρηστός ('good'). This again in many printed editions has been corrupted to the easier Χριστός ('Christ'), but it is not what St John wrote. The Slavonic is wrong here also. The link between the Psalm and Exodus is provided by the Greek words for 'year' and 'yearling'. St Gregory calls Christ στέφανον τε χρηστότητος εύλογούμενον [PG 36:641]. He also explains in the previous sentence that Christ is a yearling [έναύσιον] lamb, because he is the Sun of justice. The two adjectives, εύλογούμενος and χρηστός( both qualifying στέφανος are awkward and I think the former, which has the definite article, may in fact be a title, a virtual proper name, 'the Blessed One'.

[23] 2 Reigns 6:5.14-16, [24] An echo of Isaias 26:9, the scriptural text of the 5th Ode. Cf . Luke 24:1

[25] Malachy 3:20/4:2 and cf. Psalm 18:6, [26] Q. Isaias 49:8-9, Psalm 145:7

[27] St Gregory describes the lights of the eve of Pascha as a forerunner of the Great Light. Καλή μεν και ή χθες ήμΐν λαμπροφορία και φωταγωγία, ην ίδια τε και δημοσία συνεστησάμεθα, παν γένος ανθρώπων μικρού και αξία πάσα, δαψιλεϊ τω πυρι την νύκτα καταφωτίζοντες, και του μεγάλου φωτός άντίτυπος. ... Καλλίων δε ή σήμερον, και περιφανεστέρα. "Οσω χθες μεν πρόδρομον ην του μεγάλου φωτός άνισταμένου το φως, και οίον ευφροσύνη τις προεόρτιος. Σήμερον δε την άνάστασιν αυτήν έορτάζομεν, ουκ έτι έλπιζομένην, αλλ' ήδη γεγενημένην, και κόσμον όλον εαυτή συνάγουσαν [ PG 36:625].

[28] Matthew 25:1-13, Psalm 18:6. There is also a backward echo to Holy Week.

[29] Jonas 2:7, Matthew 12:40, [30] Isaias 45:2-3, Psalm 106:16, [31] Matthew 27:66

[32] Ezekiel 44;2

[33] This again is based on St Gregory, who uses the word αθυτον, though slightly apologetically, το μέγα και αθυτον ίερεϊον, IV ούτως ειπώ, όσον επί τη πρώτη φύσει [PG 36:640]. The word is used once in Leviticus of a victim that is 'unsuitable for sacrifice'

[34] Daniel 3:49-51.92, [35] Daniel 3:52-53, [36] Psalm 44:10, cf. Song 1:3-4

[37] Luke 24:5, [38] Matthew 28:7-8, [39] Cf . Osee 13:14, 1 Corinthians 15:54, Daniel 3:88

[40] Q. 1 Corinthians 15:23, [41] Cf . note 27 above. [42] Q. Leviticus 23:36

[43] Αυτή εορτών ήμΐν εορτή, και πανήγυρις πανηγύρεων, τοσούτον ύπεραίρουσα πάσας, ου τάς άνθρωπικάς μόνον και χαμαι έρχομένας, αλλ' ήδη και τας αύτοΰ Χρίστου και έπ' ούτω τελούμενος, όσον αστέρας ήλιος [ PG 36:624].

[44] Daniel 3:53 , [45] Matthew 26:29, the reference is to holy Communion.

[46] Philippians 2:15, [47] This troparion combines two verses from Isaias, 60:4 and 49:12. It is unclear why St John adds 'West', which is not in the Septuagint and is the meaning of the '[Mediterranean] Sea'. [48] The only overt reference to Baptism in the canon.

[49] The Hebrew has actives, 'Arise! Shine!', but Greek is either middle or passive.

[50] Isaias 60:1, [51] Q. Luke 1:47, [52] Matthew 28:20, [53] Hebrews 6:19

[54] A paraphrase of opening of the final section of St Gregory's paschal homily (Orat. PG 45 36:664), Αλλ' ώ Πάσχα, το μέγα και ιερόν, και παντός του κόσμου καθάρσιον! ως γαρ έμψυχα» σοι διαλέξομαι. Ώ Λόγε Θεοΰ, και φως, και ζωή, και σοφία, και δύναμις! χαίρω γαρ πάσί σου τοις όνόμασιν. 'But, Ο Pascha, great and sacred and the purification of the whole world — for I will speak to you as a living person — Ο Word of God and Light and Life and Wisdom and Power — for I rejoice in all your names'.

[55] The word άνέσπερος, which is common in the liturgical texts, is exclusively Christian. It is used by St Basil in his treatise on the Holy Spirit in speaking of the 'eighth day' (27:66) and also in the second homily of the Hexaemeron in explaining why Genesis 1 speaks of One day', rather than 'first day'. Both these refer to the titles of Psalms 6 and 11.

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